Friday, August 14, 2009

Kh-35 air to ship missile

Kh-35 (3M24) Uran (SS-N-25 Switchblade) Following a decision made in April 1984, OKB Zvezda started work on a "universal" (sea-, air- and coastal-launched) anti-ship missile, designated the Kh-35 (air launched) or 3M24 (sea launched). It was almost an copy of the US AGM-84 Harpoon, with the same concept, layout, and similar characteristics. The air-launched missile could be fired from altitudes from 200 to 5,000 m and had a range of 150 km. The missile was designed to engage small and fast vessels, such as enemy missile and torpedo boats and small assault ships. It could also attack transport ships with displacements of up to 5,000 tons. It was then assumed that such types of targets did not require sophisticated missile systems like the Moskit or Oniks, which were designed to engage frigates, cruisers, destroyers, and larger transport ships, especially those in convoys protected by frigates or destroyers. That is why the Uran missile is small and less sophisticated, as well as having a seeker optimized for low-RCS targets and able to track fast-moving objects. It has also low-weight high- explosive, fragmentation/incendiary warhead (believed to weigh 145 kg, though some sources say 90 kg). In the early 1990s, a sea-launched version of the missile, dubbed the 3M24, was tested. This version has a range of 130 km and has a solid-rocket booster with a turbojet engine for cruise. The cruise phase is conducted at 10-15 m in altitude at a speed of up to 300 m/sec. The terminal phase is conducted at an altitude of 3-5 m at the same speed. The missile employs the ARGS-35 active radar seeker The typical sea launcher, designated KT-184, has four angled tubes. Four such launchers (16 missiles) are mounted on modified Tarantul-class vessels. The ships have been exported to Vietnam, and a single ship is used by the Russian Navy for trials and training of foreign crews. Space for four launchers can also be found on a single new Russian "Project 1154" frigate. The ship, the Neustrashimiy , was commissioned in 1993 and serves with the Baltic Fleet, but the launchers have never actually been mounted on it. Also, two "Project 1135" Krivak I-class frigates - the Legkiy and the Pilkyi - were modernized to the "Project 1135.2" standard, receiving two four- tube launchers for the 3M24 Uran system. Through 2002 the ships have not carried any actual missiles, only empty stands for the launchers. The ships also received the MR-755 Fregat (NATO: Half Plate) radar for target designation and the Garpun-Bal (NATO: Plank Shave) radar for fire control. The Garpun-Bal combines quickly switchable active and passive modes. In the active target- designation mode, it operates in I/J band and can detect and track up to 150 targets. The radar's range is 35-45 km. The passive channel searches for pulse and continuous-wave signals. When a signal is located, the radar identifies the hostile emitter from a library of up to 1,000 signatures. The signal's bearing is also measured. The maximum range of the passive channel is over 100 km, depending on the frequency. Aside from Vietnam, the other export customer of the Uran system is the Indian Navy. Four Delhi- class destroyers are armed with 16 Uran launchers apiece. The ships are also equipped with Russian-made MR-755 Fregat and Garpun-Bal radar sets. Other Indian ships on which 3M24 Uran system is used are four P-25A type corvettes. They also have four quadruple KT-184 launchers.

In addition to the anti-ship version of the Uran system, a Glonass-controlled, land-attack variant has also been developed: the 3M24M Uranium (3M24E1 in export). The 3M24E1 system will be introduced into service with the Indian Navy. It carries more fuel, extending its maximum range to 250 km. An imaging-infrared seeker, in place of the active radar seeker, has reportedly also been tested on a basic 3M24 missile. 3M24 (Kh-35) Uran The Kh-35 (3M24 Uran) missile is similar to the US Harpoon. Like the Harpoon, it is deployable on a wide variety of platforms, with ship- and air-launched and coastal-defense versions available. It is an autonomous weapon using an inertial system for initial guidance, followed by an active radar seeker for the final stage. The latter is equipped with home-on-jam and ECCM capabilities. The air- launched version has TV-guided and IR variants, designated Kh-37 Uranium. An air-launched version entered limited service in 1994. The missile's power plant consists of a solid-fuel booster and a turbojet sustainer. Russian Designation 3M24 (ship launched); Kh-35 Uran (air-launched) NATO / DoD Designation SS-N-25 Switchbalde Manufacturer Zvezda Design Bureau Guidance Mid-course autopilot; terminal active/ passive radar seeker (TV and possible IR seeker for some export models) Warhead 145 kg semi-armor piercing incendiary Propulsion one solid-fuel boosters, turbojet sustainer Range 130 km Speed Mach 0.95 / 315 m/sec Length 3.75 m Body Diameter 420 mm Wingspan 930 mm Launch Weight 630 kg Development Start 1984 Date Operational 1993 (ship launched), 1994 (air launched) Launch Platforms Ships: Project 1135.4 (Krivak IV), Project 1454 (Neustrashimy), Project 1166.1 (Gepard) –class frigates, Project 1241.8 (Tarantul IV) -class corvettes. Project 151A (Sassnitz) -class fast missile boats Air: Tu-142 Bear, MiG-29K Fulcrum, Su-27K Flanker, Su-32 Fullback, Ka-27 Helix Users Russia, India, China, Vietnam and Algeria


Bookmark and Share